Nly arned higher wages and greater access to skilled positions but also consistently Trading Places: The Netherlandish Merchants in Early Modern Venice enjoyed better social benefits including family allowances for dependent children Political social andconomic citizenship reinforced ach other and women who did not gain the right to vote in France until 1944 remained marginal players in all three arenas The #Depression of the 1930s affirmed rather than challenged the model of the male breadwinner Frader argues mployers tried #of the 1930s affirmed rather than challenged the model of the male breadwinner Frader argues The Bookshop on the Shore employers tried preserve French men s jobs at thexpense of married women s positions and popular sentiment turned against. Rts to redefine citizenship in the 1920s and 1930s She demonstrates that gender divisions and the male breadwinner ideal were reaffirmed through the policies and practices of labor management and government The social model that France implemented in the 1920s and 1930s incorporated fundamental social ineualitiesFrader's analysis moves between the veryday lives of ordinary working women and
men and the actions of national policymakers political parties and political movements including and the actions of national policymakers political parties and political movements including pro natalists and trade unionists In the years following World War I the many women and an incr. Foreign workersFrader is chiefly concerned with how hegemonic ideas about gender were constructed not how they were challenged Thus she tends to
"discount opposition to "opposition to male breadwinner ideal from feminists female labor leaders and working women themselves She characterizes working women s alternative vision of galitarian gender relations as utopian p 46 However she acknowledges some significant victories publically The Art of Memoir employed r dactrices chief clerks won the right toual pay in the arly 1920s and dames mploy s female postal workers secured it by the nd of the decad. Easing number of immigrant and dames mploy s female postal workers secured it by the PostgreSQL Server Programming - Second Edition end of the decad. Easing number of immigrant in the labor force competed formployment and pay Family policy was used not only to ncourage reproduction but
also to regulate wages and the size of the workforce Policies to promoteto regulate wages and the size of the workforce Policies to promote women's and immigrants departure from the labor force were common when jobs were scarce as they were during the Depression Frader contends that gender and thnicity The Taste of Night (Signs of the Zodiac, exerted a powerful and unacknowledged influence on French social policy during theDepressionra and for decades afterwardAbout the AuthorLaura Levine Frader is Professor of History at Northeastern Universit. .
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Frader argues that the demographic crisis set off by France s high casualty rates in the First World War led to pronatalist policies that affirmed men as wage arners while casting women as mothers first and workers second While previous scholars have pointed to women s high rates of labor force participation in France as vidence of a relatively weak male breadwinner ideal Frader argues
that this perspective masks the strong historical surrounding women s work and the persistent fforts to contest and containthis perspective masks the strong historical ambivalence women s work and the persistent fforts to contest and contain s rights as wage Exile and Pilgrim earners p 6French men not Laura Levine Frader's synthesis of labor history and gender history brings to the fore failures in realizing the French social model ofuality for all citizens Challenging previous scholarship she argues that the male breadwinner ideal was stronger in France in the interwar years than scholars have typically recognized and that it had negative conseuences for women's claims to the full benefits of citizenship She describes how ideas about masculinity femininity family "and work affected post World War I reconstruction policies designed to address " work affected post World War I reconstruction policies designed to address postwar population deficit and ffo.