[1491 New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus] E–pub ´ Charles C. Mann
If their owners are dead then presumably many of these dogs would be pretty hungry and some of them would be out and about ooking for food probably in packs If you arrived a year or so after the catastrophe Melbourne would Great Plains: America's Lingering Wild lookike a pretty frightening place with Hard Bread (Phoenix Poets lots of hungry and presumably angry dogs walking the streets You might wonder what the hell was the matter with these people that they had so many damn dogs and didn t even bother toook after themThis is effectively what is suggested to have happened with bison That is that the removal of humans from farm Electromyography for Experimentalists lands across the continent provided bison with an ideal situation to go through a population explosion And this theneft the Europeans who arrived assuming the Indians spent all of their time hunting bison without ever seeming to diminish the population of them whereas the bison were actually just taking advantage of the Indian farms that were now no Forgetful of Their Sex: Female Sanctity and Society, ca. 500-1100 longer farms due to the Indians having died off due to disease There is a bit of Bill Bryson s A Walk in the Woods where he talks of the extinction of various types of birds that had swarmed in such profusion when Europeans arrived that the Europeans basically went nuts killing and eating them This is presented as proof of European disregard for nature something that is self evidently true by the way But in this case the birds were also an oddity Because the Indian farmers had died the corn harvests wereeft in the fields the amount of food available for these birds exploded and with that so too did their populations What Europeans witnessed and considered normal were in fact a conseuence of removing humans from what had been a human made andscape And once you do that other animals take the opportunity to flourish This book has shifted how I understand the pre European Americas if you are from the Americas you should read this not only because it is a fascinating read but also because it will serve as a useful reminder of a cultural heritage you still have responsibilities for Just as we Australians can never be reconciled with the and until we help to heal the wound we have made by our terrible and tragic history so too the Americas have a debt that needs to be repayed I m astonished at how many people mention in their reviews that they are surprised at how rich and varied and impressive the cultures of the Americas were until a certain point Many of them actually ive on the said continents How do you even ive on a continent and know Wicked Loving Lies little about its history What did anyone think the Aztec were a bunch of barbarians Did anyone think Columbus arrived to find an unpopulated part of the world Maybe because said history gets understated treatment if not outright dismissal in history education I think this is a prime example of history getting bent in the best tradition illustrated in 1984 to reach certain endsThis book is not so much innovative uite aot of all this had been published way before in professional research La heredera del mar literature traduit toots of anguages What it does is make this particular corner of history accessible to aymenSome points controversial of course as is usual with research in shady regions of history Still some are actually plenty goodFull review to follow My favorite recent history book Mann surveys the breadth and complexity of indigenous cultures in the Americas before the arrival of Columbus Some of this research was familiar to me When I taught American history in the 2000s I would start with such snapshots of Cahokia the Olmecs the Serpent Mound the Maya the great trade networks that connected the continent But even that information was hard to find Good uck finding even a mention of it in the school textbooks Despite having some knowledge I was blown away again by how populated and cultivated the American andscape was before the cataclysmic arrival of Europeans and their diseases This book blows up many stubborn out dated theories ike the singular Bering and bridge migration the idea that the Aramaic Bowl Spells: Jewish Babylonian Aramaic Bowls Volume One land was mostly empty when Europeans arrived and the idea that most indigenous peoples were simple hunter gatherers It also gives us a goodook at just how stubborn and resistant traditional Euro American scholarship has been to accepting any new information That Didn T Fit didn t fit theories about the indigenous peoples None of this will comes as a surprise to indigenous readers themselves I m sure but for me it was a refreshing amazing read I knew nothing about the vast sophisticated terraforming "societies of sub ian south america or the "of sub ian South America or the Incan empires or the way that hunter gatherer people intentionally crafted the Xenophon And His World (Historia Einzelschriften) landscape to better serve their needs Mann gave me a tantalizing glimpse into a complex beautiful pre Columbian world As someone who writes professionally in this area unabashed plug watch for God s Mercies Doubleday Canada in October 07 I have high praise for this title aong overdue assessment of native culture and civilization before and at contact with Europeans I m still reading it but I ve b Very well written a good mixture of factual evidence and narrative The main take home point here should be known to everyone especially Americans There is a reason why there was a period of 128 years between Colombus anding and a permanent European settlement in North America Namely there were millions of Native Americans there who thought Europeans were dirty amusing creatures who had interesting objects but were not fit for being neighbors Attempted European settlers were continuously driven out When one tribe finally took pity on the English settlement of
Plymouth It Was Only Because A Smallpox Epidemic Had Killed it was only because a smallpox epidemic had killed numbers of the them off and they were concerned about being run over by their enemies who had not yet suffered this fate It is ikely that were it not for the outbreaks of smallpox preceding many of the first European scouts moving westward that America would have never been a country Oh yeah and concerning South America there is evidence that much possibly 70 80% of the forest is man made This is definitely a well researched eye opening book that will challenge the idea that Native Americans were a sparse people who had no effect on their environment and Groove: An Aesthetic of Measured Time let things be on their own The only reason people think that most Native Americans were purely nomadic hunters was because the smallpox had killed off most of the urbanized settlements that reuired agriculture Fascinating exploration of what we know of the New World before Columbus arrived I knew pretty much nothing about the Incas the Mayans the Aztecs and all the other societies that actually were possibly BIGGER than Europe in 1492 and dwarfed it in centuries before It s also an interesting survey of these societies and their environments of how the Indians and the pristine environments are a bit of a myth The scope of the book covers so many different culture puts everything into a context I never imagined beforeThe author obviouslyoves what he does and relishes research and it definitely makes potentially dry material come to One Wild Weekend life Opened my eyes to a subject I knew nothing about so I highly recommen. Led man’s first feat of genetic engineering Indeed Indians were notiving Forgetful of Their Sex lightly on theand but were Naturally Naughty Wicked Willing landscaping and manipulating their world in ways that we are only now beginning to understand Challenging and surprising this a transformative newook at a rich and fascinating world we only thought we kne.
Download 1491 New Revelations of the Americas Before ColumbusUr relationship to nature and the final section about the role American Indian concepts of freedom and individuality may have influenced the founding of the United States super intriguing worth books of their own Maybe that s where he s going with 1493 Words prelapsarian adj before the Fall of Man Talkin Bilbical here p 14telluric adj terrestrial pertaining to soil p 80statrapies n in this context F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby leaders or states that act primarily in response toarger political entities p 138fissiparous adj tending to fall apart separate p 373 The survey of current thinking on the population of the americas via that Beringia Walled (The Line, land bridge and the subseuent summary of the evolutions of early american society is interestingBut the repeated comparisons between american society and eurasian society are really fraught and often belabored The comparisons between the two hemisphere s agriculture and domesticable animals are fine but the assertion that Aztec apparently it s politically correct to call them Mexica philosophy was as rich as medieval europe s isudicrous especially given that such a huge volume of Aztec codices have been preserved and deciphered The Aztecs did some respectable philosophical work but Mann s exaggerations aside they didn t come close to rivaling the work done in ancient Greece to say nothing of the subseuent 2000 years of philosophy in Europe with a nod towards Middle Eastern contributions as well that took place between the death of Aristotle and the discovery of the new world Today it may be possible to take a mesoamerican philosophy course in some university departments but there are very few if any Cruel Attachments: The Ritual Rehab of Child Molesters in Germany lasting or novel contributions to the the broader discipline of philosophy to be found in Aztec or Mayan or Incan philosophy There s no shame in that it has been said that all philosophy is but a footnote to Plato So why feel the need to exaggerate and mislead readers by making politically correct assertions that have no basis in realityAlso the distinction the author draws between guilt and responsibility ie we should not feel guilty that Cortes introduced smallpox and wiped out 95% of american indians but we have some responsibility for this is way too underdeveloped to be taken seriously I don t necessarily think that the discussion is even necessary but it is not an uncommon discussion in US politics and Mann consciously decides to wade into these waters First he never defines we though it seems he means whites of european descent residing in the new world and maybe Europeans back in Europe who benefitted from mercantilismcolonialism It s not clear And then he never explains how responsibility can be justly divided among descendants how someone of say direct Cortezineage might have a different evel of responsibility than a descendant of an Irish family with no seafaring anscestors and no pedigree in the New World until the ate 19th century And if they have the same responsibility then does a modern day Chinese or Indian immigrant to the new world also have some responsibility All unclear and the absence of even any contemplation of these points eaves the book s attempts at constructing a morality of EuropeanAmerican Indian interaction disappointingly hollow Mann decided the topic was worthy enough to merit some discussion it is unfortunate he failed to do the topic any justice You know in fourteen hundred and ninety two Columbus sailed the ocean blue So 1491 was a particularly interesting year for the inhabitants of the Americas This is a remarkably similar story to that told in Dark Emu It is almost as if everything I ve ever known about pre European settlement in Australia and the Americas has been well utter rubbish Which is than a ittle annoyingWhat is very interesting here is that we seem to have grossly under estimated both the population of the Americas prior to European arrival and also the extent of farming including farming in the basin a particularly interesting part of this book The
#author suggests that #suggests that ocal Indian populations in the effectively created the forest to meet human
Needs And That This Was Then Ableand that this was then able support a much arger population than we would otherwise have estimated and one much advanced than we assume tooAll of this has conseuences and implications of course because we could and should earn a ot from peoples who have could and should One Giant Leap learn aot from peoples who have the Apocalyptic Cartography land for thousands of years before we arrived and who did so in ways that appear to have been much sustainable than anything we have achieved since This book covers far too much in fact so much so that after a while my head was almost spinning We travel across both continents Sometimes there is so much detail involving the pre European arrival political struggles and murders that it pays to remember that if the Indians had invaded the UK at around this same time they d have come just after the War of the Roses You know what I m saying is that Europe was in no position to criticise other countries and their monarchies for their internecine murders and battles The thing that has shifted how I understand this history involves a kind of key provided by this book to understanding what happened Basically Europeans were filthy since weived with ots of animals and so we brought horrible horrible diseases to the Americas The ocal populations had no defence against such diseases and also had a remarkably narrow gene pool are pools narrow Maybe it was a shallow pool Either way it seems that up to 95% of the A Bride for McCain local populations were killed by diseasesike small pox We can hardly imagine what that would mean The debate still rages about whether the Europeans intentionally spread these diseases although another book I have read on this said that James the First referred to small pox as a gift from God so it wasn t as if we were particularly upset about the inferno that we allowed to sweep before us as we arrived in the New World What is clear is that not only did the population collapse entire civilisations were brought to their knees And as we arrived we often assumed that what we found was what had been with us completely unaware we were witnessing societies suffering under dire stress The author makes it very clear that what we were seeing was a grossly distorted vision of what had previously existed I ve never fully understood the implications of this Let s say for the sake of argument that some disease came to Melbourne where I ive a city of about 5 million people and it wiped out 95% of everyone Obviously all of the normal things you might expect to be going on in a city would come to a screaming halt You would be unlikely to be able to catch a tram for instance or buy milk at the ocal supermarket if 19 in every 20 people suddenly stopped iving And the people eft would be without nearly everyone they have known and oved so not particularly happy if you know what I mean But that would only be the beginning of the problems Let s say none of the animals died in this catastrophe The estimate is that 62% of households in Melbourne have pets and there are 20 dogs per 100 people which would mean all of a sudden there would be 20 dogs for every five people. E huge numbers of Indians who actively molded and influenced the and around them The astonishing Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan had running water and immaculately clean streets and was arger than any contemporary European city Mexican cultures created corn in a specialized breeding process that it has been cal. ,